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Edited by Kelsea Johnson and Meredith Hall Johnson
Layout & Design: George Jaegers and Bob Weaver







2003 Speleo Digest Summary

The year 2003 was a prolific year for NSS grotto and internal organization newsletters. In the 2003 NSS Members Manual, there were listed: 202 United States grottos, 3 international grottos, 2 traveling grottos, 12 Regions (6 with newsletters), 17 Sections (15 with newsletters), 9 State Cave Surveys, and 2 affinity groups. (Cave Conservancies were not listed.) Of all these Internal Organizations, 100 submitted newsletters to the Speleo Digest Series Editor. Of these, articles from 95 were used publications. From Alabama through Wisconsin in the U.S. and from Bahamas through United Kingdom in the international section, caves of all sizes, types, and difficulties are cataloged in the 2003 Speleo Digest. More than 230 maps are included! Topics range from Cave Descriptions to Spelean History to Spelean Humor and Art. Cave Science includes a jam-packed Geology section and Biology. Equipment and Techniques includes Cave Gear, Cave Digging, and Conservation. Surely there is something for every caver in this book. A few highlights include: the Cave Conservancy of the Virginias announcing the Powell Mountain Karst Preserve, which contains 16+-mile Omega Cave, the deepest cave east of the Mississippi (Region Record); two related articles explaining the French Wrap, a potentially life-saving self-belay method to control out-of-control rappels (Front Royal Column); and the Indiana Karst Conservancy’s purchase of Waynes Lost Cave, “an Indiana ‘classic’ cave” (Near Normal News). Most of us don’t subscribe to more than one or two grotto newsletters, so there is a lot we’re missing out on. Not anymore—buy a Speleo Digest and you’ll catch up on all the best of that year’s publications. If you would like to view the Table of Contents, Publications Represented page, or any of the book indices, just visit the following: http://www.caves.org/pub/speleodigest/. Supplies are limited, so order your copy today for only $26, plus shipping. Online orders can be placed 24/7 at the NSS Bookstore using the NSS Secure Server. NSS Bookstore, 2813 Cave Ave, Huntsville, AL 35810. Phone (256) 852-1300. nss@caves.org. www.caves.org.


Table of Contents




United States Cave Descriptions 1


International Cave Descriptions 349


Equipment and Techniques 417

Safety and Technology 419


Cave Science 483


Spelean History 511

Spelean Humor and Art 541


Indexes 583




2003 Author Index




Editor's Note: If the same page number appears next to a name, that person had more than one article on that page.

Page designations are as follows:
a=artwork
c=cartoon
m=map (if the map did not accompany an article)
p=photograph




2003 Title Index




2003 Cave Index by State

Editors’ Note: This is a list for research purposes. A cave listed here was mentioned in the article with at least one fact to go with the cave name. Many of these listings are just that: one-fact cave mentions, but worth including. Most, however, are discussed in greater length and may indeed be the focus of the article.

Alabama


Alaska


Arizona


Arkansas


California


Colorado


Florida


Georgia


Hawaii


Idaho


Illinois


Indiana


Iowa


Kansas


Kentucky


Maine


Massachusetts


Minnesota


Missouri


Montana


Nebraska


Nevada


New Hampshire


New Mexico


New York


North Carolina


Oklahoma


Oregon


Pennsylvania


Puerto Rico


South Dakota


Tennessee


Texas


Utah


Vermont


Virginia


Washington


West Virginia


Wisconsin


2003 Cave Index by Country

Editors’ Note: This is a list for research purposes. A cave listed here was mentioned in the article with at least one fact to go with the cave name. Many of these listings are just that: one fact cave mentions, but worth including. Most, however, are discussed in greater length and may indeed be the focus of the article.

Austria


Bahamas


Belize


Bermuda


Brazil


Canada


China


France


Georgia


Guatemala


Mexico


Pacific Islands


Panama


Romania


Rwanda


Serbia


Slovenia


South Africa


Spain


Switzerland


United Kingdom


2003 Publications Represented

Editors’ Note: In the 2003 NSS Members Manual, there were listed: 202 United States grottos, 3 international grottos, 2 traveling grottos, 12 Regions (6 with newsletters), 17 Sections (15 with newsletters), 9 State Cave Surveys, and 2 affinity groups. (Cave Conservancies are not listed.) Of these 245 Internal Organizations, 100 submitted newsletters. Of these, articles from 95 were used. If your grotto or group publishes a newsletter, please send it to the Speleo Digest Series Editor—you just might get an article or two in the Speleo Digest for that year!