All back issues of Compass & Tape have been scanned and are available to download at no cost.  Click on the cover images below to links to PDF files of the issues. 

The numbering of Compass & Tape issues become somewhat confusing in 1993 when two numbers in Volume 11 were skipped.  Soon after that it was decided to institute a sequential “Issue Number” so recipients  would be able to easily know there were no gaps in their collection. There are no gaps in the issue numbers published.

Click on cover image to see issue. Use your browser’s find command to search for topics or authors in the table of contents below.

Volume 1, Issue 1, Number 1 – Summer 1983 – pp. 1-14

Edited by John Ganter, Assoc. Eds. Robert Swicegood & Cady Soukup

Miscellaneous: Balloons, tripods, etc.  p. 3

How to use the Suunto – George Veni  p. 4

The wet Suunto… – Roberta Swicegood  p. 6

Thoughts on surveying pits – Bill Steele  p. 8

AMCS map symbols – Peter Sprouse  p. 9

Say, how high is that dome? – John Ganter  p. 10

Membership list  p. 12

Great (!?) moments in surveying  p. 13



Volume 1, Issue 2, Number 2 – Fall 1983 – pp. 15-31

Edited by John Ganter, Assoc. Eds. Robert Swicegood & Cady Soukup

From the Editor  p. 16

Pennsylvania Cave Survey – Keith Wheeland  p. 17

Keson open-reel tape modification – Art Pettit  p. 23

Cave survey notebooks – John Ganter  p. 25

Things to buy – John Ganter  p. 27

A protractor for the big board – John Ganter  p. 28

Clogged pens – Roberta Swicegood  p. 29

More on ferrous materials – John Ganter  p. 30

Still more on ferrous materials – Roberta Swicegood  p. 30

Ferrous wheel – Cady Soukup  p. 30

The duksbak waterproof book – George Veni  p. 31


Volume 1, Issue 3, Number 3 – Winter 1984 – pp. 32-49

Edited by John Ganter, Assoc. Eds. Robert Swicegood & Cady Soukup

From the Editor  p. 34

New Suunto  p. 34

Cave locations and the USGS  p. 35

Evolution of cave survey techniques in the West – Bill Storage  p. 36

Geodetic control – John Ganter  p. 38

Demented mental wanderings of a frustrated cave surveyor – George Dasher  p. 41

Selected cave map symbols from the 1976 NSS Standard List  p. 48

They took/ Time out/ For fun  p. 49



Volume 1, Issue 4, Number 4 – Spring 1984 – pp. 50-65

Edited by John Ganter, Assoc. Eds. Robert Swicegood & Cady Soukup

Thoughts on cave mapping – Dug Medville  p. 52

Centerfolds 1 & 2 – Bernie Smeltzer, Duwain Whitis  p. 54, 55

From the Editor – letter from Bill Storage  p. 56

Storage on symbols – John Ganter  p. 57

XEROX 2080 photocopier – Bill Torode  p. 59

Bibliography of American cave mapping  p. 61

Changes in SACS Convention Schedule  p. 65




Volume 2, Issue 1, Number 5 – Summer 1984 – pp. 1-21

Edited by John Ganter

Kwik tape – Bill Torode  p. 3

Suunto survey – John Carter  p. 4

Paper Session 1984 – Paul A. Hill  p. 7

Cave sketching – Keith Ortiz  p. 9

The effect of tilt on compass error – Lang Brod  p. 11

Sources of error in cave surveys – Dan Crowl  p. 14

Centerfold: California Caverns – Cave City – Peter Bosted  p. 17

Thoughts on sealing Suuntos – Lang Brod  p. 19

Section Meeting 1984 – Paul Hill  p. 21


Volume 2, Issue 2, Number 6 – Fall 1984 – pp. 22-43

Edited by John Ganter

How to build an ultrasonic rangefinder – Bill Mixon  p. 24

No ports, no problem – John Ganter  p. 25

Do's and don't of cave surveying – Bill Douty  p. 26

Caving paperwork – Jim Borden  p. 28

Heavy questions – Warren Hoemann  p. 30

Map reviews  p. 31

Lettering – John Ganter  p. 32

Cave survey with laser profiles – P. Waldhausl  p. 38

Comments on Laprophot – John Ganter  p. 40

Depth… revisited – John Ganter  p. 42

1984 Cart Salon – Ernst Kastning  p. 43


Volume 2, Issue 3, Number 7 – Winter 1985 – pp. 44-73

Edited by John Ganter

Uncharted waters of sea cave surveying – Carol Vesely  p. 46

Survey reduction with the HP-15C – Timoth H. Heaton  p. 52

Mapping the tiny cave – George Veni  p. 53

Rebuttal to Medville – Donald Davis  p. 55

Bill Storage comments  p. 57

Joe Saunders comments  p. 58

Editorial: The Cart Salon – John Ganter  p. 58

Map reviews  p. 59

Cave lists: Science or pseudo-science – Raymond deSaussure  p. 61

Coming attractions: Cart Salon and SACS Session '85  p. 62

Drawing profiles – John Ganter  p. 63

Remote-template-controlled lettering – Toni L. Williams  p. 66

The Ultrapod  p. 70

Instrument rebuilds – John Ganter  p. 70

More things to buy  p. 72

Miscellany: Texas graphics and antique survey gear  p. 73


Volume 2, Issue 4, Number 8 – Spring 1985 – pp. 74-86

Edited by John Ganter

The Brunton compass: A solution to Suunto problems – Mike Futrell  p. 76

Organization of a large mapping project: The Klamath Mountains – Mike Sims  p. 78

Number of caves and cave maps for some US States  p. 80

TI calculator software  p. 81

New guide to mapping caves available  p. 81

Centerfold: Cave of the Winding Stair – Bob Richards  p. 82

The Editor thanks  p. 83

SACS Session 1985: Frankfort, Kentucky  p. 83

CAD/CAM survey plotting – Bruce F. Jelen  p. 84

Mysterious terms explained – Tyler Groo  p. 85

Section Treasurer needed /// NSS Electronics Section formed  p. 85

Volume 3, Issue 1, Number 9 – Summer 1985 – pp. 1-26

Edited by John Ganter

An outsider's look at the inside of a cave – Ellen Garsch  p. 3

Financial report  p. 11

SACS activities at NSS Convention 1985 – John Ganter  p. 12

SACS Annual Meeting minutes – George Dasher  p. 15

Balloons in action, Climax Cave, Georgia – Frank Huchinson  p. 18

The Alabama Cave Survey – Greg McGill, Joe Domanovich  p. 19

1985 NSS Cartographic Salon entries – John Ganter  p. 20

Information, please: The Neitz Holtz Compass  p. 21

Preserving spelean literature – Gary K. Soule  p. 22

Preserving maps – John Ganter  p. 23

Have you seen the book……??? – John Ganter  p. 24

NSS Survey & Cartography Section Bylaws  p. 25

Mapping humor – Carol Vesely, Gary O'Dell  p. 26


Volume 3, Issue 2, Number 10 – Fall 1985 – pp. 27-54

Edited by John Ganter

Survey team protocol: The hidden efficiency – Paul A. Hill  p. 29

Random ramblings about this year's Cart Salon – Carol A. Vesely  p. 33

Basic 35mm slide preparation – Bob Richards  p. 36

When is a cave a CAVE ? – Phil Lucas  p. 39

The Pennsylvania Cave Database & the microcomputer – Keith D. Wheeland  p. 40

A computer program for finding quad names from coordinates – Keith D. Wheeland  p. 42

Large cave rooms of the World: An interim report – John Ganter  p. 43

Representing water in caves through the use of shading – John Ganter  p. 44

More cave map symbols: Passage terminations – Mike Futrell  p. 49

Cave mapping publications in the NSS Bookstore  p. 49

Queries to the Editor  p. 50

Official 1985 Cart Salon results  p. 52

More on transfer films – E. Calvin Alexander  p. 53

The Ultimeter altimeter/barometer – John Ganter  p. 54


Volume 3, Issue 3, Number 11 – Winter 1986 – pp. 55-68

Edited by John Ganter

From the Editor  p. 57

The Mini-Compass – Bob Salika  p. 58

A comment on passage termination symbols – Tyler Groo  p. 59

Scaling and units of measurement in cave mapping – John Ganter  p. 60

Pinpointing cave locations by satellite – Keith Wheeland  p. 62

Donald Davis loses his compass  p. 62

Cave locations and the U.S.G.S.  p. 63

A response concerning the 1985 NSS Map Salon – Doug Medville  p. 64

SACS members and subscribers  p. 66

The Survey Team (Comics) – Rod Morris  p. 68

Cavern areas of the U.S. (map from Davies & Morgan, 1980)  p. 68


Volume 3, Issue 4, Number 12 – Spring 1986 – pp. 69-90

Edited by John Ganter

3-D cave models – Peter Bosted  p. 71

Towards a communicative cave report – John Ganter  p. 73

Alternative measuring devices – Bill Torode  p. 86

Surface sensing of caves: The Petro-Sonde device – John Ganter  p. 87

Cartographic Salon summary, 1978 – 1985 – Ernst Kastning  p. 89

In Cave of Fire, Remember Your Priorities (Cartoon) – Mike Futrell  p. 89

Events: SACS Session and Meeting, 9th Annual Cartographic Salon  p. 90

The Editor thanks  p. 90



Volume 4, Issue 1, Number 13 – Summer 1986 – pp. 1-26

Edited by John Ganter, Assoc. Ed. Bob Hoke

Topography in caverns: Work methodology – Claudio Jose, Mendes Pedrosa, Nivaldo Destro  p. 3

Explorations aided by topography – Wolfgang Valle Walter  p. 4

Backsights for fun and profit – Roberta Swicegood  p. 6

The Cave Cartography Workshop: Some observations – Carol Vesely  p. 8

Submitting material to Compass & Tape  p. 11

One student's view: The Cartography & Survey Workshops – Lorna Greenway  p. 12

Survey & Cartography Session: 1986 Convention – John Ganter  p. 13

Map-Aid for cave maps – Richard Market  p. 14

9th International Congress of Speleology – Bob Thrun  p. 15

U.S.G.S. consolidates facilities  p. 15

Cart Salon entries – Compiled by John Ganter  p. 16

1986 Cartogrphic Salon results – Ernst Kastning  p. 17

A short history of cave surveying – Bill Torode  p. 18

How to draft a cave map without touching a pen – Tim Glover  p. 19

3-D cartography for the rest of us – Gary R. Schaecher  p. 20

A note on the Petro-Sonde  p. 23

Minutes of the 1986 SACS Annual Meeting – George Dasher  p. 24


Volume 4, Issue 2, Number 14 – Fall 1986 – pp. 27-40

Edited by John Ganter

Editorial: How NOT to mark survey stations  p. 29

Software developments  p. 29

More on the Int. Congress of Speleology – Rich Breisch  p. 30

A neoprene Suunto case – Carol Vesely  p. 31

Cave mapping system – Steve Peerman  p. 32

Book review: Atlas des Grandes Cavites Mondiales – Rich Breisch  p. 35

Computer-aided sandscape maps (product)  p. 36

Suunto protection – John Ganter  p. 37

Cave mapping with the Bighorn Project (excerpt) – John Stembel  p. 38

Sectional Charts & World Aeronautical Charts – Frank Reid  p. 39

1987 SACS Session announcement – Dan Crowl  p. 40

The Map Catalog (product)  p. 40


Volume 4, Issue 3 & 4, Number 15 – Spring 1987 – pp. 41-56

Edited by John Ganter

Averaging network elements – David McKenzie  p. 43

Lighting up your Suunto – Richard Market  p. 54

Army map-folding method preserves topos – Frank Reid  p. 55

SPELEO-PRESS offers new services  p. 56

UIS Commission on karst mapping  p. 56

Mexico maps available from Peter Sprouse  p. 56

New Editor sought  p. 56




Volume 5, Issue 1, Number 16 – Summer 1987 – pp. 1-20

Edited by John Ganter

The transit-survey myth – Bill Mixon  p. 3

Hold the light a little closer – Russ Gurnee  p. 5

NSS Committee on Long & Deep Caves  p. 8

1987 SACS Session Papers (abstracts)  p. 10

Geomagnetics news  p. 11

A SMAPS/Autocad interface – Jim Nepstad  p. 12

1987 SACS Annual Meeting – Dave West  p. 13

LORAN-C for cavers (updated) – Frank Reid  p. 14

Suunto instrument maintenance – Ian McKenzie  p. 17

More on Suunto instrument maintenance – Doug Medville  p. 18

TSA Instrument Cave  p. 18

1987 NSS Cartographic Salon entries  p. 19

GeoScience resources  p. 20

Tektronics 3-D workstation  p. 20

Volume 5, Issue 2, Number 17 – Fall 1987 – pp. 21-48

Edited by John Ganter

On cave survey blunders – Fred L. Wefer  p. 23

Testing the Ultimeter – John Ganter  p. 44









Volume 5, Issue 3, Number 18 – Winter 1988 – pp. 49-62

Edited by John Ganter

Survey German-style in the Austrian Alps – Carol Vesely  p. 51

Mental calculation of reciprocal bearings – Frank Reid  p. 54

Thread-measuring devices: A review – John Ganter  p. 55

A trigonometric analysis of Suunto sighting error – Brad Neff  p. 60







Volume 5, Issue 4, Number 19 – Spring 1988 – pp. 63-114

Edited by John Ganter

Editorial: Will we map as we survey? – John Ganter  p. 65

Some comments from across the pond – Bryan Eillis  p. 67

The Autohelm personal compass – Frank Reid  p. 78

More on cave survey blunders – Fred L. Wefer  p. 79

Still more on cave survey blunders – Fred L. Wefer  p. 94






Volume 6, Issue 1, Number 20 – Summer 1988 – pp. 1-20

Edited by Tom Kaye

One judge's view – George Dasher  p. 3

Sketching – George Dasher  p. 5

On the origin of the Topofil surveying device – Claude Chabert  p. 8

Survey grading – George Dasher  p. 10

Minutes of the 1988 Surveying and Cartography Section – Tom Kaye  p. 17

New Editor  p. 18





Volume 6, Issue 2, Number 21 – Fall 1988 – pp. 1-32

Edited by Tom Kaye

CAD applications at Wind Cave – Jim Nepstad  p. 3

50 years of cave mapping: A brief overview – John Ganter  p. 9

Using one eye with the Suunto – Roger V. Bartholomew  p. 16

An evaluation of the Autohelm personal compass for cave surveying – Roger V. Bartholomew  p. 21

Total vertical traverse – Bill Mixon  p. 24

Don't use two eyes with your Suunto – Robert Thrun  p. 25

Flashlight Tip – Barbara am Ende  p. 25

Letter to the Editor – Lang Brod  p. 26

Letter to the Editor – Sue Bozeman  p. 27

Letter to the Editor – John P. Brooks  p. 28

Reply to Ms. Bozeman – George Dasher  p. 28

Reply to Mr. Brooks – George Dasher  p. 30

Letter to the Editor – George Dasher  p. 30

Editor's remarks – Tom Kaye  p. 31


Volume 6, Issue 3, Number 22 – Winter 1988-89 – pp. 1-19

Edited by Tom Kaye

The plumbing of Provatina – Fred L. Wefer  p. 3

The need for standardized cave map salon judging criteria – Rich Breisch  p. 12

Some tidbits on solo surveying – Kevin and Carlene Allred  p. 14

Comments on standardized map judging – John Ganter  p. 16







Volume 6, Issue 4, Number 23 – Spring 1989 – pp. 1-30

Edited by Tom Kaye

CAD for cave mapping: A cautious assessment – John Ganter  p. 3

Regional surveys and where to find more caves – George Veni  p. 18

Karst features maps – David A Hubbard, Jr.  p. 21

Reply to standardization appeal – Robert Thrun  p. 23

Map salon judging – further comments – George Dasher  p. 23

More on the map salon judging – Becky Jagnow  p. 24

More varieties of blunders – Robert Thrun  p. 26

Preliminary impressions of SMAPS 4.2 – John Ganter  p. 28

Editor's comments – Tom Kaye  p. 29


Volume  7, Issue 1, Number 24 – Summer 1989 – pp. 1-26

Edited by Tom Kaye

The computerization of the cave map – Fred L. Wefer  p. 3

The 1989 NSS Cartographic Salon – George Veni  p. 15

Cave mapping and sensitive information – John Ganter  p. 20

Wind Cave map in 3D – Rich Breisch  p. 21

Letter to the Editor – George Dasher  p. 22

The minutes of the 1989 Surveying and Cartography Section meeting – George Dasher  p. 23

Volume 7, Issue 2, Number 25 – Fall 1989 – pp. 1-22

Edited by Tom Kaye

A North arrow and scale for stage-4 cave maps – Fred L. Wefer  p. 3

Suunto modifications for a light rod – Lang Brod  p. 13

Book review of An Introduction to Cave Surveying by Bryan Ellis – Bob Hoke  p. 21








Volume 7, Issue 3, Number 26 – Winter 1989-90 – pp.

Edited by Tom Kaye

Viewing definition and control for stage-4 cave maps – Fred L. Wefer  p. 3

Cartographic Salon [announcement] – George Dasher  p. 20

The California Convention – Carol Vesely  p. 20

The NSS Cartography Salon Organization and Judging Criteria – The SACS Cartographic Salon Committee  p. 23

Book review – Rich Breisch  p. 28

Survey instrument maintenance update – Ian McKenzie  p. 30




Volume 7, Issue 4, Number 27 – Spring 1990 – pp. 1-34

Edited by Tom Kaye

Content definition and control for stage-4 cave maps – Fred L. Wefer  p. 3

Cave visualization using voxels – an alternative to commercialization – Richard L Breisch  p. 24

Discussion of Wefer's "The computerization of the cave map" and "A North arrow and scale for stage-4 cave maps" – John Ganter  p. 29

Rivalry error in two-eyed Suunto sightings – Roger V. Bartholomew  p. 30

Past medal winners of the NSS' Cartographic Salon – compiled by George Dasher  p. 33

Survey tips and techniques – Tom Kaye  p. 33




Volume 8, Issue 1, Number 28 – Summer 1990 – pp. 1-36

Edited by Tom Kaye

Miscellaneous operations for stage-4 cave maps – Fred L. Wefer  p. 3

Cave map language: Yet another cave compiler – Mel Park  p. 22

Tips and Techniques: Blue light in caves – Frank McNutt  p. 31

Tips and Techniques: Refurbishing Suuntos – George Veni  p. 31

Tips and Techniques: How to clean your Suuntos – Beth Webb  p. 31

Maps of the 1990 Cartographic Salon – reported by George Dasher  p. 32

Minutes of the 1990 meeting of The Surveying and Cartography Section of The National Speleological Society – George Dasher  p. 35



Volume 8, Issue 2, Number 29 – Fall 1990 – pp. 1-14

Edited by Tom Kaye

A paradigm for digitized cave mapping – John Fogarty  p. 3

Macintosh graphics from SMAPS – Tim Kilby  p. 12

New laser printer materials may interest cave mappers – Tim Kilby  p. 13








Volume 8, Issue 3, Number 30 – Winter 1990-91 – pp. 1-24

Edited by Tom Kaye

The accuracy of a cave survey – Denis Warburton  p. 3

Commentary on Warburton article – Bob Thrun  p. 20

An evaluation of the SmartLevel as a survey inclinometer – Roger V. Bartholomew  p. 21








Volume 8, Issue 4, Number 31 – Spring 1991 – pp. 1-26

Edited by Tom Kaye

Clipboard surveying – Tom Kaye  p. 3

Tilt error in Suunto compasses sighted with the glass rod cylindrical lens – Roger V. Bartholomew  p. 6

The topo digitizing program or using a digitizing tablet to get cave coordinates – Robert Thrun  p. 12

Index for the Compass and Tape – George Dasher  p. 13

Cumulative index for the Computer Applications Section Newsletter – Bob Hoke  p. 23






Volume 9, Issue 1 & 2, Number 32 – Summer & Fall 1991 – pp. 1-26

Edited by Tom Kaye

What's it worth? – Tom Spina  p. 3

Theoretical vs. experimental compass tilt error – Robert Thrun  p. 5

GPS—The 90's way to locate caves – Tim Kilby  p. 6

The realities of cave mapping – C. A. Vesely  p. 7

The only cave map on a postage stamp – Rich Breisch  p. 8

Derivation of cave closure weighting factors – Tom Kaye  p. 9

Observations of an NSS map salon judge – Ed Devine  p. 12

The use of "T.H.C." on cave maps – Robert Thrun  p. 16

Book review: The Precision Survey of Lechuguilla Cave – Rich Breisch  p. 18

Book review: Mapping Jewel Cave – from the Surface – Rich Breisch  p. 19

1991 Cartographic Salon report – George Dasher  p. 20

The minutes of the 1991 annual Surveying and Cartography Section Meeting  p. 21

Editor's comments – Tom Kaye  p. 22

National Speleological Society Survey and Cartography Section  p. 22

Survey and Cartography Section Membership List  p. 23

Volume 9, Issue 3 & 4, Number 33 – Winter & Spring 1992 – pp. 1-20

Edited by Tom Kaye

The north arrow — an important directional standard – Ed Devine  p. 3

National Geomagnetic Information Center: GEOMAG – U.S. Geological Survey  p. 7

Baseline measurement by solar observation – Ed Devine  p. 8

Theory & experiment in tilt error in Suunto compasses sighted with the glass rod cylindrical lens – Roger V. Bartholomew  p. 17

Future cave survey technology – Roger V. Bartholomew  p. 18

Letter to the Editor – George Dasher  p. 19

Corrections – Tom Kaye  p. 20



Volume 10, Issue 1 & 2, Number 34 – Summer & Fall 1992 – pp. 1-20

Edited by Tom Kaye

The Minutes of the 1992 Surveying and Cartography Section – George Dasher  p. 3

Lost: Critique Sheet – George Dasher  p. 5

Call for convention papers and maps – Bob Hoke  p. 6

Letter to the C&T Editor – Bob Hoke  p. 6

The perfect cave trip – Hubert Crowell  p. 6

Letter to the Editor – Philip Moss  p. 8

Cave locations on maps – Tom Kaye  p. 9

1992 NSS Cartographic Salon – George Dasher  p. 10

NSS Cartographic Salon Medal Winners – George Dasher  p. 12

NSS Cartographic Salon Chairman ramblings – George Dasher  p. 13

Cartographic Salon medal award name – George Dasher  p. 15

Keep the Cartographic medal depersonalized – Bob Hoke  p. 19

Bernie Smeltzer 'pro' article – Tom Kaye, ed.  p. 19

You could be the Editor – Tom Kaye  p. 19


Volume 10, Issue 3 & 4, Number 35 – Winter & Spring 1993 – pp. 1-20

Edited by Tom Kaye

LRCF.'s (Lotsa Ridiculous Cave Features) – Dave Collings  p. 3

Survey cheat sheet – Howard Kalnitz  p. 9

Suunto instruments – Mark Minton  p. 11

Basic cave surveying in Alaska – Carlene Allred  p. 12

Calibration of the KVH DataScopeTM – Hubert C. Crowell  p. 17






Volume 11, Issue 1 & 2, Number 36 – Summer & Fall 1993 – pp. 1-18

Edited by Tom Kaye

Some lessons in running a successful cave survey project – Bob Hoke  p. 3

Surveying efficiently: Tricks of the trade – Carol Vesely  p. 7

Comment on LRCFs: Measure them! – George Veni  p. 9

Survey Contest 1993 Convention – Hubert C. Crowell  p. 10

1993 NSS Cartographic Salon – George Dasher  p. 12

1994 National Speleological Society Convention Call For Papers: Equipment & Techniques Session  p. 13

NSS Survey and Cartography Section papers – Roger Bartholomew  p. 14

New Editor – Tom Kaye  p. 14

SACS memberships extended – Bob Hoke  p. 14

Available: NSS News and NSS Bulletin back issues – John Ganter  p. 15

Minutes of the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Survey and Cartography Section of the NSS – Bob Hoke  p. 15


Volume 12, Issue 1, Number 37 – January 1995 – pp. 1-26

Edited by Pat Kambesis

The minutes of the 1994 Surveying and Cartography Section meeting – George Dasher  p. 2

Announcements: On Station  p. 5

Announcements: Buckeye Bulletin  p. 5

Announcements: Convention 1995: Call for papers  p. 5

1994 NSS Cartographic Salon – George Dasher  p. 6

NSS Cartographic Salon criteria  p. 8

Protecting Suunto instruments – Mike Yocum  p. 9

The OTR compass course: Or: The need for compass' courses – George Dasher  p. 12

Cartoon from The RASS Register  p. 13

Survey standards: Cave survey standards for Carlsbad Caverns National Park – Cave Resource Office at Carlsbad Caverns National Park  p. 14

Cave mapping – Jim Nieland  p. 21

Survey & Cartography Section membership list – January, 1995  p. 23


Volume 12, Issue 2, Number 38 – July 1995 – pp. 1-29

Edited by Pat Kambesis

Message from the Chairman – Carol Vesely  p. 2

LRCFs: We can do better – Peter Sprouse  p. 3

The art of lead tape and other related ramblings – Tom Moss  p. 4

Observations on survey sketch quality – Mike Yocum  p. 9

Creating electronic maps from true to scale cave survey sketches – Garry Petrie  p. 16

On guidelines for electronic maps – Pat Kambesis  p. 19

Survey standards for Hidden River Cave Project – Mike Yocum  p. 26

Graphical solution for determining ceiling heights – Pat Kambesis  p. 29



Volume 12, Issue 3, Number 39 – January 1996 – pp. 1-25

Edited by Pat Kambesis

FFrom the Editor: – Pat Kambesis  p. 1

Letters to the Editor  p. 2

1995 Survey and Cartography Section meeting – George Dasher  p. 11

Call for papers – 1996 NSS Convention  p. 12

1995 NSS Cartographic Salon – George Dasher  p. 13

Cave cartography using Autocad – Bert Ashbrook  p. 14

Documenting cave entrance descriptions and locations – George Dasher  p. 20

Report on the "Criteria for Judging Electronic Maps" session of the 1995 Convention – or clueless in Blacksburg – Pat Kambesis  p. 21

Comments and suggested guidelines for electronic maps – Fred Wefer  p. 22


Volume 12, Issue 4, Number 40 – July 1996 – pp. 1-25

Edited by Pat Kambesis

From the Editor: – Pat Kambesis  p. 1

Chairman's message – Carol Vesely  p. 2

Letters to the Editor  p. 3

Blunder location – Larry Fish  p. 5

Accuracy of GPS receivers and an attempt at do-it-yourself differential GPS – Robert Thrun  p. 12

Why have lava tube survey standards? – Kevin Allred  p. 19

Kazumura Cave Project of the HSS – Survey standards – Kevin Allred  p. 19

Cartographers Corner – Pat Kambesis  p. 24

Volume 13, Issue 1, Number 41 – April 1997 – pp. 1-25

Edited by Pat Kambesis

From the Editor – Pat Kambesis  p. 1

Letters to the Editor  p. 2

1996 Cartography Salon – George Dasher  p. 3

Survey and Cartography Section meeting - August 20, 1996 – George Dasher  p. 4

Judges wanted for the 1997 Cartography Salon – George Dasher  p. 5

NSS Cartography Salon organization and judging criteria – George Dasher  p. 6

From the Cartography Salon Chairman some thoughts on the 1996 Cartography Salon – George Dasher  p. 11

The problem with least squares loop closures – Larry Fish  p. 15

Computer graphics for cave maps – David Parr  p. 19

No excuse for not knowing magnetic declination – Bert Ashbrook  p. 23

Cartographers Corner – Pat Kambesis  p. 24


Volume 13, Issue 2, Number 42 – April 1998 – pp. 1-25

Edited by Pat Kambesis

From the Editor – Pat Kambesis  p. 1

Call for papers for 1998 NSS Convention  p. 2

Survey and Cartography Section meeting – June 26, 1997 – George Dasher  p. 3

1997 Cartographic Salon awards – George Dasher  p. 5

Computer graphics – A FreeHand way to generate and display cave maps – Bob Richards  p. 7

On surveying underwater caves – Jim Coke  p. 13

Notes for cave surveyors on the Earth's magnetic field, and orienting cave surveys to True North using the USGS GEOMAG program – Ira D. Sasowsky  p. 20

Mapping equipment for wet caves – Philip L. Moss  p. 23

Cartographers' Corner – Cross sections and elevation data – Pat Kambesis  p. 24


Volume 13, Issue 3, Number 43 – July 1998 – pp. 1-25

Edited by Pat Kambesis

Section business/Letters to the Editor  p. 2

Magnetic influences upon compass accuracy – Doug Strait  p. 3

Errors in the Suunto compass used for cave surveying – Lang Brod  p. 5

Hourly variation of magnetic declination – Robert Thrun  p. 14

Surveying and the role of geological data – Dr. A. R. Farrant  p. 15

Two AutoCAD linetypes for cave cartography – Bert Ashbrook  p. 18

Ceiling height determination in large rooms with common cave surveying equipment – Jim Glock  p. 19

Report on UID Symbols List for Cave Survey – submitted by Garry Petrie  p. 20



Volume 13, Issue 4, Number 44 – March 1999 – pp. 1-21

Edited by Pat Kambesis

Call for papers, 1999 Convention, Filer, Idaho  p. 2

Survey and Cartography Section minutes – George Dasher  p. 3

1998 Cartographic Salon  p. 5

Data reduction/plotting program questionnaire – George Dasher  p. 6

A comparison of simultaneous and sequential closure adjustment methods – Robert Thrun  p. 9

Additional comments on adjustment methods – Robert Thrun  p. 14

Rebuttal: Simultaneous vs. sequential loop closures – Larry Fish  p. 15

In the Spotlight – SACS Junior Cartographers: Indian Ladder Cave – George Dasher  p. 20

In the Spotlight – SACS Junior Cartographers: Rising stars in a caving family – Pat Kambesis  p. 21


Volume 14, Issue 1, Number 45 – June 1999 – pp. 1-21

Edited by Pat Kambesis

Suunto compass holding methods – Eric Hendrickson  p. 2

More thoughts regarding simultaneous and sequential loop closures – Bert Ashbrook  p. 4

Sidebar: Illustrating a problem with the sequential method – Bert Ashbrook  p. 4

Simultaneous/sequential closure: Round 2 – Robert Thrun  p. 6

More discussion of least squares loop closures – Larry Fish  p. 8

Overview on least squares cave survey issues – John Halleck  p. 11

Cave survey software: What features do you need and/or want? – Pat Kambesis  p. 14

Templates for reading topo map coordinates – Robert Thrun  p. 14

Survey and Cartography Session abstracts 1998 NSS Convention, Sewanee, Tennesee  p. 19


Volume 14, Issue 2, Number 46 – February 2000 – pp. 1-25

Edited by Pat Kambesis

Call for papers – Survey & Cartography Section, NSS Convention 2000, Elkins, West Virginia  p. 2

1999 Survey & Cartography Section Meeting Minutes – Filer, Idaho – submitted by Bob Hoke  p. 3

Cartographic Salon 2000 announcement  p. 4

Judging criteria for NSS Cartographic Salon – by SACS Cartographic Salon Committee  p. 5

1999 NSS Cartographic Salon entries and winners – Hazel Barton  p. 12

How common are blunders in cave survey data? – Larry Fish  p. 14

Intermediate cave survey tips & techniques – Bob Hoke  p. 18

Internal angles examples – John Halleck  p. 21

Mapping the tiny cave – George Veni  p. 24


Volume 14, Issue 3, Number 47 – October 2000 – pp. 1-17

Edited by Pat Kambesis

Letters to the Editor  p. 2

2000 Survey & Cartography Section meeting minutes, Elkins, WV – submitted by George Dasher  p. 7

Survey and Cartography Session abstracts NSS Convention 2000  p. 11

NSS Cartographic Salon 2000 entries and winners – Rod Horrocks  p. 14

Notes on Adobe Acrobat for cave maps – John Ganter  p. 16






Volume 14, Issue 4, Number 48 – October 2000 – pp. 1-35

Edited by Pat Kambesis; Guest Editor Scott Schmitz

From the Editor – Pat Kambesis and Scott Schmitz  p. 2

Judges comments from the 1999 NSS Cartography Salon – Steve Reams  p. 2

Judges' scoring sheet  p. 4

Cartographic Salon entries and winners – 1999 NSS Convention – Hazel Barton  p. 5

Bry Ice Cave – Bill Broeckel  p. 6

James Cave – Jim West and Kenneth Storey  p. 9

Hellsinky – Connie LaPerriere  p. 12

Las Grutas De Cuesta Chica – Abigail Wines  p. 13

Goa Hatu Saka – Chris Andrews  p. 16

Eiswert Cave #2 – Jim Kennedy  p. 18

New Cave – Garry Petrie  p. 20

Lime Creek Cave – Paul Burger  p. 22

Narrows Cave – Paul Burger  p. 25

Sexton Section of Kazumura Cave – Bob Richards  p. 29

Cueva de Villa Luz – Bob Richards  p. 31

Arabica Cave – Carlene Allred and David Love  p. 34

Critique of the 1999 cartographic critique  p. 35

Volume 15, Issue 1, Number 49 – May 2001 – pp. 1-26

Edited by Pat Kambesis

Letters to the Editor  p. 2

The 2001 Cartographic Salon – Steve Reams  p. 4

Call for papers  p. 5

Linear symbols for cave maps in Freehand – John Ganter  p. 6

<?Cave survey data in XML?> – Devin Koots  p. 10

Computer modelling of cave passages – Larry Fish  p. 19

Compass brands and their manufacturers – Bob Thrun  p. 25




Volume 15, Issue 2, Number 50 – December 2001 – pp. 1-18

Edited by Pat Kambesis

NSS Survey and Cartography Section meeting minutes. July 27, 2001 – Suzanne Deblois  p. 2

2001 Cartographic Salon report – Steve Reames  p. 4

Pan and ink: A new salon category? – Steve Reames  p. 6

Experiments in creating high fidelity cave models: Part 1 – Getting the data – Greg Passmore  p. 7

The International Foot versus the U.S. Survey Foot or the case of the galloping caves – Larry Fish  p. 11

Tunnel reconstruction from sparse range data using interpolated implicit surfaces – Thomas Lesperance  p. 15




Volume 15, Issue 3, Number 51 – May 2002 – pp. 1-20

Edited by Pat Kambesis

Ultrasonic cave mapping – W.I. Sellers and A.T. Chamberlain  p. 4

Canvas map makers guide – Paul Burger  p. 12

The transit survey myth – Bill Mixon  p. 18








Volume 15, Issue 4, Number 52 – December 2002 – pp. 1-17

Edited by Pat Kambesis

Call for papers  p. 4

Minutes of the 2002 Survey and Cartography Section meeting  p. 5

2002 Cartographic Salon results – Steve Reames  p. 8

Development and testing of three components of the process of transferring digital cave survey data – Mike Yocum  p. 9

Obituary: Mike Yocum  p. 17





Volume 16, Issue 1, Number 53 – August 2003 – pp. 1-15

Edited by Pat Kambesis

From the Editor  p. 3

Survey and Cartography Section meeting minutes NSS Convention, Porterville, California  p. 4

Instructional workshops and sessions at the 2003 NSS Convention – Pat Kambesis  p. 5

2003 Cartographic Salon results – Salon Coordinator: Rod Horrocks  p. 7

Survey and Cartography Session, Porterville, California – Session Coordinator: Roger Bartholomew  p. 10

GIS Digital Mapping Symposium – Session Coordinator: Bernie Szukalski  p. 13





Volume 16, Issue 2, Number 54 – November 2003 – pp. 1-20

Edited by Pat Kambesis

From the Editor  p. 3

Errata  p. 4

Call for maps and papers NSS Convention 2004  p. 5

Summary of Cartographic Salon awards 1978-2003 – compiled by George Dasher  p. 6

Digital cave drawing with Mayura Draw – Erik Halbert  p. 8

Precision surveys with the Brunton compass – Art Palmer  p. 16

Magnetic storms – Bob Thrun  p. 19




Volume 16, Issue 3, Number 55 – March 2004 – pp. 1-19

Edited by Pat Kambesis

Call for papers  p. 4

Cartographic Salon 2004 announcement  p. 5

Cave maps by Xara X – Tom Lounsbury  p. 6

Digital airbrushing of cave maps – Bob Richards  p. 16

Catastrophic compass failure – Wookey  p. 19






Volume 16, Issue 4, Number 56 – December 2004 – pp. 1-19

Edited by Pat Kambesis

Minutes from 2004 Survey & Cartography Section meeting, Marquette, Michigan – George Dasher  p. 4

Cartographic Salon 2004 results – George Dasher  p. 5

Abstracts from 2004 Survey and Cartography – Session Chair – Bob Hoke  p. 7

The effects of lava on compass readings: Part I – Dale Green  p. 9

Volume 17, Issue 1, Number 57 – February 2005 – pp. 1-25

Edited by Pat Kambesis

Call for papers, 2005 NSS Convention  p. 4

The effects of lava on compass readings: Part II – Dale J. Green  p. 5

Auriga, or trading your survey notebook for a PDA – Luc Le Blanc  p. 12

An analysis of systematic and survey errors or better surveying through mathematics – Dave Andreatta  p. 16






Volume 17, Issue 2, Number 58 – November 2005 – pp. 1-17

Edited by Pat Kambesis

Raders Valley Project – Mark Passerby  p. 4

Protecting your Suuntos – Mark Ohms  p. 9

Finding loops in cave surveys – Larry Fish  p. 10







Volume 17, Issue 3, Number 59 – October 2006 – pp. 1-17

Edited by Pat Kambesis

Minutes from 2005 Survey & Cartography Section meeting  p. 4

Minutes from 2006 Survey & Cartography Section meeting  p. 5

2005 NSS Cartographic Salon results – Jim "Crash" Kennedy  p. 7

2006 (29th Annual) NSS Cartographic Salon, Bellingham, Washington – Jim "Crash" Kennedy  p. 8

Hydroleveling of very deep caves, with an example from Voronja (Krubera) Cave – Alexander Degtjarev, Eugene Snetkov, and Alexey Gurjanov  p. 10





Volume 17, Issue 4, Number 60 – December 2007 – pp. 1-17

Edited by Pat Kambesis

Minutes from 2007 Survey & Cartography Section meeting  p. 4

2007 Cartographic Salon results  p. 6

Cave surveys, cave size, and flank margin caves – John Mylroie  p. 8

Common blunders during the survey trip – Bob Hoke & Pat Kambesis  p. 17







Volume 18, Issue 4, Number 61 – July 2010 – pp. 1-17

Edited by Pat Kambesis

Minutes from 2009 Survey & Cartography Section meeting  p. 4

ICN/NSS 2009 Cartographic Salon Results  p. 5

Survey Techniques for Xe Bang Fai River Cave, Loas People's Democratic Republic – Aaron Addison  p. 7

How I Learned to Love Cross Sections – Testimonial from a survivor of GCSS – Jeff Bartlett  p. 11

The Effect of Binocular Vision Disorders on Cave Surveying Accuracy – Mark Dougherty  p. 17

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