and Cartography Section
of the National Speleological Society
SURVEY & CARTOGRAPHY
(Second Edition) This is the most comprehensive book about cave surveying. It
contains valuable information on all aspects of cave surveying for
every level of interest from basic to advanced. The second
edition was produced in 2011 so it doesn't include a lot of information
about the new technology being introduced to the cartographic process,
but it is still an excellent resource. The book is available from
the NSS bookstore.
On-Line Geomagnetic Declination A website for
obtaining geomagnetic declination (from the National Geophysical Data
& Tape back issues privide a wealth of useful information. All the issues can be downloaded as PDF files at no cost.
Long & Deep Cave Lists (NSS GEO2 Committee on
long & deep
caves) Lists of USA & World long and deep caves, World’s big cave
rooms, deepest pits, longest sea, underwater, and gypsum caves, and
Cave surveying, and caving in general, is
technological revolution. SACS member Derek Bristol has created
has created a Web site with information and instructional videos for
several aspects of caving, including cave surverying and mapping,
vertical caving techniques, and cave photography. His Web site is
and is well worth checking out.
Cave Map Symbols
Cave Map Symbols: NSS Standard Cave Map Symbols,
1976 The NSS
Bulletin: Quarterly Journal of the National Speleological Society,
April 1979, Vol. 41, No. 2, p. 33–48. (pdf file)
Most Frequently used Cave Map Symbols from On Station, Appendix A, p. 153.
Speleological Society Cave Map Symbols on one page. By George
Dasher, Compass & Tape,
Vol. 1, No. 3, Winter 1984, p. 48. (pdf file)
UIS Cave Symbols from the UIS working group on
cave survey and mapping. Select a language and click go.
A selection of articles from previous issues of Compass & Tape and other sources...
Hydroleveling of very deep caves, with an
example from Voronja (Krubera) Cave (pdf file)
by Alexander Degtjarev, Eugene Snetkov, and Alexey Gurjanov
Reprinted from AMCS Activities Newsletter, No. 29
Cave surveys, cave size, and flank margin
caves (pdf file)
by John Mylroie, Compass & Tape, Vol. 17, No. 4, Issue 60,
How common are blunders in cave survey data?
by Larry Fish
Protecting your Suuntos (pdf
by Mark Ohms
Intermediate Survey Techniques (and in-cave
blunder prevention) (pdf file)
by Bob Hoke
The DC Grotto Compass Course
by Bob Thrun – DC Grotto did a series of compass readings to study
the accuracy and repeatability of compass readings. There were 31
compasses, 9 readers, and more than 1,600 readings. Various statistics
are presented. 12 p.
A Statistical Study of Survey Errors or How
Accurate are our Cave Surveys (pdf file)
by Bob Thrun – Compares the closure adjustments for 39 actual
surveys with the adjustments that would be made if the surveys had
random errors taken from the distributions specified by the 1976
British Cave Research Association Survey Grade 5. This paper was given
at the 2000 NSS Convention and is slightly revised in 2009. 22 p.
An Evaluation of the Hash Function in CMAP
by Bob Thrun – This is used to search for matching survey station
names in a computer program. It is not directly about cave surveying. 2
Describing Survey Quality (pdf
by Bob Thrun – This was written after the furor about the 2002
changes in BCRA Survey Grades. It discusses survey grades and other
ways to describe survey quality. It was published in Compass Points,
No. 31. 5 p.
last updated or validated on April 23, 2020